In Finland, collective agreements are of general application. This means that a collective agreement in an industry becomes a general legal minimum for an individual`s employment contract, whether or not he or she is unionized. For this condition to apply, half of the workers in this sector must be unionized and therefore support the agreement. The United States recognizes collective agreements   If you run a business in the Netherlands, you may need to work with a collective agreement (Collectieve Arbeidsovereenkomst, CAD). CAOs are collective agreements between employers (or employers` organizations) and unions on wages and other conditions of employment. Under common law, Ford v. A.U.E.F. , , the courts found once that collective agreements were not binding. Second, the Industrial Relations Act, introduced by Robert Carr (Minister of Labour in Edward Heath`s office), provided in 1971 that collective agreements were binding, unless a written contractual clause indicated otherwise.
Following the fall of the Heath government, the law was struck down to reflect the tradition of the British labour relations policy of legal abstention from labour disputes. The Act is now enshrined in the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 p.179, which provides that collective agreements are definitively considered non-binding in the United Kingdom. This presumption can be rebutted if the agreement is written and includes an express provision that it should be legally enforceable. A collective agreement, a collective agreement (TC) or a collective agreement (CBA) is a written collective agreement negotiated by collective bargaining for workers by one or more unions with the management of a company (or with an employer organization) that regulates the commercial conditions of workers in the workplace. These include regulating workers` wages, benefits and obligations, as well as the obligations and responsibilities of the employer, and often includes rules for a dispute resolution process. Executive Order (EO) 13836, Developing Efficient, Effective, and Cost-Reducing Approaches to Federal Sector Collective Bargaining, signed by the President on May 25, 2018, requires agencies to submit any long-term collective agreement (CBA) and its expiry date within 30 days of the CBA`s entry into force. EO 13836 also requires OPM to make these CBAs available to the public on the internet. This promotes transparency by allowing the public to consult the types of agreements between federal agencies and industry unions. Agencies are also required to submit arbitration awards to OPM within 10 business days of receipt. OPM has issued a memorandum on the publication of the CBA database, which contains guidelines on agency requirements for CBAs and arbitration awards. In Sweden, about 90% of employees are subject to collective agreements and 83% in the private sector (2017).   Collective agreements generally contain minimum wage provisions.
Sweden does not have legislation on minimum wages or legislation extending collective agreements to disorganised employers. Unseated employers can sign replacement agreements directly with unions, but many do not. The Swedish model of self-regulation applies only to jobs and workers covered by collective agreements.  Although the collective agreement itself is not applicable, many of the negotiated terms relate to wages, conditions, leave, pensions, etc.