Tripartite Agreement Angola
Nevertheless, the scathing remarks used today by the foreign ministers of Cuba, Angola, South Africa and Mr. Shultz showed that serious differences remained. The main points of contention were the Reagan administration`s refusal to suspend military aid to Angolan guerrillas and the Angolan government`s inability to make peace with its opponents. While hostilities were pending in Angola, the parties met in New York and Geneva in June and August. Finally, on 20 July, all approved a framework agreement on the principles of a peaceful settlement in South-West Africa.  During the negotiations, South Africans were invited to release Nelson Mandela, an an ANC activist imprisoned, as a sign of goodwill, which was disputed.  A ceasefire was finally concluded on 8 August 1988. Mandela remained in prison until February 2, 1990, when South Africa lifted the ban on the activities of the ANC`s African National Congress. In 1981, Chester Crocker, assistant secretary of state for African affairs of the new US President Ronald Reagan, had developed a policy of liaison. It conditioned South Africa`s approval on apartheid to relinquish control of Namibia and withdraw from Angola, in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 435, to the withdrawal of its troops from Angola.   On September 10, 1986, Cuban President Fidel Castro accepted the principle of Crocker`s proposal. The South African government has also accepted the principle of the link; it proposed the concept at the 7th plenary session of the United Nations on 20 September 1986 (the Namibia question).
Since the signing of a ceasefire agreement by the Angolan warring parties in April 2002, some 200,000 Angolans have returned home in UNHCR or on their own, mainly from neighbouring DRC, Namibia and Zambia. However, Angolans in South Africa will be a new challenge. The Angolan and American governments began bilateral talks in June 1987, as the civil war continued. Historians disagree on how the various parties agreed to sit at the table: however, both governments reserve “the right to amend or amend their obligations” under this agreement “in the event of a flagrant violation of the tripartite agreement.” Like the others, this agreement establishes a tripartite commission to oversee the return process.